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THE KINDS OF SEIZURE: THE NEW SYSTEM – “PARTIAL” AND “GENERALIZED” SEIZURES

March 24th, 2011 Posted in Epilepsy | No Comments »

An internationally accepted system of classification of seizures was adopted in 1981. This new classification separates seizures into “partial” (“simple” and “complex”) and “generalized.”
Partial seizures may or may not alter consciousness or awareness, depending on where they start and which structures of the brain they involve. Partial seizures that do not alter consciousness are called “simple partial seizures”, in the past called “focal motor” or “focal sensory” seizures. Partial seizures in which consciousness is altered or lost are called “complex partial seizures.”
Generalized seizures affect the whole brain, not just one part, and they alter consciousness. In a generalized seizure, there is no obvious partial or focal onset or aura. When there is a focal onset, and the seizure progresses to involve the whole brain, it is termed a “partial seizure with secondary generalization.”
Generalized seizures come in two sizes: large and small—convulsive and nonconvulsive. Nonconvulsive refers to alterations of consciousness but without jerking movements. Convulsive here means that there are muscle movements like jerking or stiffening.
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CANCER AND NUTRITION: CALCIUM

March 17th, 2011 Posted in Cancer | No Comments »

The average daily intake of calcium for an American is 450-500 milligrams, an amount well below even the U.S. RDA of 1,000 milligrams per day for those under age 50 and 1,500 milligrams per day for those over 50. While it is important to include sufficient calcium in your diet, you have to be wary of dairy products, its chief source. They contain too much fat and are also highly allergenic no matter what their fat content. Fatty foods are a factor in 60 percent of women’s cancers, 40 percent of men’s cancers, and 75 percent of all cardiovascular diseases.
Low calcium levels are linked to:
Osteoporosis.
Hypertension
Asthma flares.
Colon cancer
Alzheimer’s disease
Some male infertility problems
It is important to get the proper amounts of calcium in your early years—the first twenty to twenty-five years of life—so that the risk of all illnesses will be greatly reduced. However, recent studies suggest that postmenopausal women should take calcium supplements because even at that age bone loss can be reduced. 4,18 These studies have important implications for osteoporosis, because it is shown that bone loss can be reduced significantly even if you begin taking calcium later in life. Osteoporosis currently affects 34 million Americans and results in 1.3 million bone fractures each year.
The safest and easiest way to obtain calcium is by taking a calcium supplement. However, calcium should not be taken by itself; rather, it should be taken with several other nutrients that aid calcium absorption and metabolism. Some of these nutrients, like vitamin D and vitamin C, should be taken only with food, and the others, like magnesium, boron, silicon, threonine, and lysine, should be taken with calcium at night. Calcium and magnesium should be taken in a ratio of about three or four to one. Calcium should be taken only at night and not with food because fiber foods bind calcium and render it useless, and the body repairs itself at night using calcium, and if there is insufficient calcium available, it will be taken from the bones. Take calcium with orange or tomato juice if they do not upset your stomach because they facilitate calcium absorption. The best form of calcium to take is calcium carbonate because it is absorbed better than the other forms of calcium, and the lower molecular weight of calcium carbonate allows the use of a smaller pill. And finally, calcium taken at bedtime may help you fall asleep.
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THE FIRST FEW WEEKS OFF DRUGS OR DRINK

March 10th, 2011 Posted in Anti-Smoking | No Comments »

Now stop.
Just don’t take any more of the drug. Say ‘No’ to yourself and to your using or drinking friends. It’s as simple as that. Concentrate with every fibre of your being on not taking the next fix, pill, smoke or drink.
Do that NOW.
(Or, if you are on a programme of cutting down tranquillisers, make sure that the next pill is the’ right cut-down dose as part of the programme. Tranquilliser addicts and barbiturate addicts reading this chapter will need to bear in mind that the abrupt stop which all other addicts should be doing does not apply to them. Alcoholics, too, must remember that abruptly stopping, without any medication for withdrawal, can be dangerous.)
The first few hours and days are not going to be easy. However, you will get through them successfully if you practise the skills of Narcotics Anonymous and Alcoholics Anonymous. These are truly lifeline mental tricks, designed to keep you clean and sober despite the pain of withdrawal.

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DECIDING TO COME OFF DRUGS: YOU CAN’T DO IT ON YOUR OWN.

February 24th, 2011 Posted in Anti-Smoking | No Comments »

It is a statistical fact that very few addicts or alcoholics manage to give up drugs or alcohol without some kind of support system. Drugs or drink have been so important in their lives that when they stop using them there is a great gap in their way of life. Something has to take its place.
‘I stopped lots of times,’ recalls William, a recovering addict who has been clean and happy for three years. ‘Each time stopping became harder, and the gaps between not using and using became shorter. I found that as the withdrawals got worse, I got more practised at handling them.
‘But it was after the withdrawals – that was the worst. There was a sort of black hole in my life, a feeling of “What the hell’s the point?” I’d get two or three weeks clean of withdrawals and be such a mess as a person that I’d go back to using.’
Addicts or alcoholics who try just to carry on, without putting anything in the place of drugs or alcohol, eventually fail. Sooner or later almost all of them go back to drugs or drinking.
After all, if chemical dependence is an illness, it needs some kind of extra care. If you went into hospital for an appendix removal, it would be madness to discharge yourself directly you came to after the operation. You simply wouldn’t be well enough to plunge straight back into normal life. And besides, it would be crazy to try and take out the stitches yourself.
It is just the same with drug dependence. You are going to need proper after-care.
So if you want to get well, you are going to need help.

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BACH FLOWER REMEDIES: RESCUE REMEDY IS VERY USEFUL AS A FIRST AID

February 17th, 2011 Posted in Herbal | No Comments »

Extreme mental tension and irritability caused by persistent bad situation in which the sufferer feels helpless. He may develop muscular tension and pain therefrom.
Impatience remedy provides the necessary patience to wait and watch the progress of the rescue effort in the emergency cases.
Rescue remedy has been found very useful as a First Aid assistance to a person involved in a serious road accident or any sudden mishap and any doctor would be well-advised to keep a phial of Rescue Remedy always with him.
In case of the sufferer having lost consciousness in an accident, the Rescue Remedy in water – a few drops in a glass of water – may be applied to the lips, the gums, behind the ears and on the wrist of the person.
Dr. Krishnamcorthy has cited several cases treated by Rescue Remedy:
1) A baby fell off a table, was crying like hell and had a large bump on the head.
Rescue Remedy put on his lips and on the bump gave immediate relief.
2) A girl got sudden terrible period pains while travelling in a bus. A dose of Rescue Remedy gave immediate relief.
3) A child suddenly awoke from sleep at night and cried because he felt choked because of sudden nose block. A dose of Rescue Remedy brought immediate relief. We give Rescue Remedy in globule form to young mothers for infants or small children who cry but cannot tell what is the trouble with them – whether it is colic pain in stomach or earache or some nightmare.
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BACH FLOWER REMEDIES:CHERRY PLUM – MRS. H. KAUR’S CASE

February 10th, 2011 Posted in Herbal | No Comments »

Mrs. H. Kaur had itching trouble in her armpits. Whenever she went near the kitchen fire for cooking food, her itching increased. She feared nearing the kitchen fire and yet she had to do the cooking herself.
A combination of Cherry Plum (to overcome unbearable itching) and Mimulus (to cover the fear element) given T.D.S. for one month gave her much relief. Fear element had subsided completely, although some itching remained for which Cherry Plum alone was continued for another month to give her complete relief. With the advent of the next summer, the itching started and with it the fear that this itching would increase as in the previous year.
Now it was a case of repetition of itching and not of unbearable itching.
Therefore a combination of White Chestnut (for repetition of trouble) and Mimulus (for fear) given T.D.S for 1 week relieved the trouble.
Thereafter, White Chestnut alone was continued T.D.S for another 4 weeks to finish the repetitive tendency of the ailment.
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WHY YOU CAN’T STAY AWAKE: MANAGEMENT OF APNEA

January 27th, 2011 Posted in Anti Depressants-Sleeping Aid | No Comments »

As we saw in the previous chapter, the options for drug therapy in the treatment of sleep apnea are few and relatively ineffective. Some drugs may be appropriate when central apnea is the problem, since they act to repair the mechanisms responsible for a malfunctioning respiratory drive. Protriptyline, for example, stimulates the muscles of the upper airway; it also decreases the time spent in REM sleep, thus minimizing the periods during which most severe OSA occurs. In OSA, however, the causes of the breathing disruption are usually of a physical nature, making drug therapy largely useless. Sleeping pills, commercial or prescription, are no solution. I have discussed the fact that use of sedatives may produce sleep but can also act to prevent the sleeper from waking up enough to begin breathing after an apnea attack. What’s more, such drugs suppress respiratory function even further—in some cases to the point of death.
By the same token, however, to delay treatment, or avoid it entirely, may be just as dangerous. Besides the health risks posed by apnea, such as hypertension and heart disease, there is the documented danger of death directly attributable to breathing problems.
There are options, however, which can provide varying measures of success but, like almost any medical treatment, have their share of drawbacks as well. As we have seen, most apnea is really a mixture of CSA and OSA. Thus the discussion of treatments here will focus on the latter, since in many cases remedying the obstruction will subsequently eliminate the cause of central apnea as well.
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WHAT’S THE RATE OF PEOPLE GET DIFFERENT MEDICAL TREATMENT FOR BDD?

January 20th, 2011 Posted in Anti Depressants-Sleeping Aid | No Comments »

People with BDD didn’t receive more than one third of all the treatments they requested. And they didn’t receive more than half of all the surgeries they requested. The most common reason is that the physician considered the treatment unnecessary (because the person looked fine) and didn’t provide it. So many people had to see a lot of doctors before they could find one who would finally agree to provide the requested treatment.
It can be very difficult, though, to turn down requests for surgery or other medical treatment. Some people with BDD suffer so greatly that it can be very hard to deny them the treatment they so desperately seek. “The doctors and they couldn’t turn me down because I was so miserable.” Another man said, “I can’t believe the doctor did liposuction because now I know I look fine. But I was so unhappy back then that he gave in and did it.”
One man thought he looked like an “alien” and believed he was the third ugliest person in the world (after Gomer Pyle and Tiny Tim). He’d gone to 3 dermatologists and 3 dentists, none of whom agreed to treat him. He’d also seen 16 plastic surgeons, all of whom turned him down. One surgeon told him that if he got all the surgery he wanted, he’d look “mutilated.” Finally, the 17th surgeon agreed to do a nose job, but the patient hated the result so much that he sued the surgeon. When I saw him he was so desperate for more surgery that he was planning to get into a massive car accident that would destroy his entire face.
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SLEEP PATTERNS: CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS ARE NOT THE SAME AS “BIORHYTHMS”

January 13th, 2011 Posted in Anti Depressants-Sleeping Aid | No Comments »

It might be well to note that circadian rhythms— a known and accepted physiological principle—are not the same as “biorhythms,” a fad that reached its peak in the 1970s. While circadian rhythms dominate our every bodily function, biorhythms were declared by some to be long-term cycles of physical and emotional health that could be traced back to the date of birth and, at least theoretically, used to project our performance on any given day. “Computers” designed to generate biorhythm charts appeared in shopping malls, restaurants, movie theater lobbies, and turnpike rest stops. In exchange for a quarter the machines purportedly warned people that they would reach a peak or a trough on such and such a day, that they should avoid driving or sexual contact, and so on—sort of a high-tech form of palm reading. Not surprisingly, biorhythms were dismissed as pop science by chronobiologists. In one study, for example, investigators compared reports of thirteen thousand on-the-job accidents, as well as eighty-five hundred airplane mishaps, with the so-called critical days supposedly predicted by the biorhythms of the workers and pilots. No correlation was found.
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SURGERY, DERMATOLOGIC TREATMENT, AND OTHER NONPSYCHIATRIC MEDICAL TREATMENT FOR BDD: DO THESE TREATMENTS WORK?

December 30th, 2010 Posted in Anti Depressants-Sleeping Aid | No Comments »

The answer to this question seems to be no—they usually don’t. In the study I’ve been describing of 250 people with BDD who received these treatments, 72% of the treatments resulted in no change in overall BDD severity.
Considering all types of nonpsychiatric treatment combined (“any treatment”), only 11.7% of all treatments improved overall BDD symptoms, and 16.3% were followed by worsening of overall BDD symptoms. Most often, BDD didn’t change. In my series of 200 additional people, even fewer treatments improved BDD: only 3.6% (91.0% led to no change, and 5.4% led to worsening). What about surgery, which is generally the most definitive and expensive treatment that’s received? In the study 18, 58.3%
Number of treatments received in each category: Any treatment: 453, surgery: 15, dermatologic treatment: 265, dental: 34, other medical: 17, paraprofessional: 22 of surgeries resulted in no change in BDD symptoms, and 24.3% were reported to make BDD symptoms worse. In other words, after surgery nearly one quarter of patients were even more preoccupied with the perceived appearance flaw, more distressed, and more impaired by their appearance concerns. Eighty five percent of treatments received from a dentist, 100% of other treatments received from other types of doctors (e.g., endocrinologist), and 91% of treatments received from a paraprofessional led to no change or worsening of BDD symptoms. It’s worth noting that surgery and dental treatments were particularly likely to worsen BDD symptoms.
Dr. Veale’s study, done in England, had similar results. He found that 81% of the 50 BDD patients he saw in a psychiatric setting were dissatisfied or very dissatisfied with the outcome of nonpsychiatric medical consultation or surgery. Repeated surgery tended to fuel increasing dissatisfaction. Although I didn’t ask patients about their satisfaction per se, it’s my impression that experiencing no change in the appearance concern—and certainly experiencing a worsening of this concern—causes people with BDD to feel quite dissatisfied. Sometimes the dissatisfaction is intense, leading to panic, despair, and sometimes even suicidal or violent behavior.
Although only some patients find that BDD gets worse after surgery or medical treatment, in some cases the outcome is extremely poor—even life-threatening. One man I saw who had multiple ear surgeries became suicidal and violent each time the bandages were removed after surgery, necessitating repeated emergency hospitalization. A young man whose surgeon turned him down for forehead surgery but who gave him some facial cream thought the cream created huge, dark spots on his face. He became so enraged over this that he went on a rampage around his parents’ house, threatening them with a hammer and splintering their furniture. A number of patients threatened to sue, or expressed fantasies of harming, their surgeon.
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